Week 6 DQ#1 Peer review: Describe the medical and spiritual uses of hallucinogens both currently and in the past.
The qualitative participation requirements are:
Follow-up responses to classmates’ initial answers or responses that integrate course theories with a practical application of the subject, offering a personal observation or experience, or referencing real-world examples, current events, or presenting current research on the topic.
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Classroom interaction demonstrating deeper or broader thoughts beyond rephrasing what the textbook has presented on the topic.
Responses encouraging further discussion and ongoing dialogue with other students and the instructor in the class.
Asking additional, relevant questions about the week’s topic.
Hello Professor and Class,
Currently the most popular trend in hallucinogen use occurs at electronic dance music festivals, where psychoactive substances for recreation and to enhance their experience with the ingestion of “Molly” also known as MDMA or “Ecstasy” (Mohr, Friscia, Yeakel, Logan, 2018). Since 2008 the use of hallucinogens has become synonymous with the Rave’s and other music/dance festivals, which have become for some, a spiritual practice of the modern age (Mohr, Friscia, Yeakel, Logan, 2018).
Currently, some studies demonstrated that the use of psychedelics may have a benefit in lowering suicidality, mental health symptoms, and lowered stress or their use can assist in helping individuals with issues related to addiction, PTSD, or chronic illness (Garcia-Romeu, Kersgaard, Addy, 2016).
Past use of hallucinogens such as psilocybin mushrooms, Ayahuasca, peyote and iboga have been used for centuries in African and American cultures as a spiritual endeavor, a cultural practice, for reflection, in ceremonies by laypersons, shaman, parishioners and indigenous medicine persons (Hope, Rosa, 2018).
Garcia-Romeu, A., Kersgaard, B., & Addy, P. H. (2016). Clinical Applications of Hallucinogens: A Review. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, (4), 229. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsbl&AN=RN607387678&site=eds-live&scope=site
Hope, S., & Rosa, W. (2018). Holistic Care of the Spirit: The Use of Entheogens in Patients with Advanced Serious Illness. Beginnings, 38(4), 18–21. Retrieved from https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ccm&AN=131428259&site=eds-live&scope=site
Mohr, A. L. A., Friscia, M., Yeakel, J. K., & Logan, B. K. (2018). Use of synthetic stimulants and hallucinogens in a cohort of electronic dance music festival attendees. Forensic Science International, 282, 168–178. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.11.017
Re:Topic 6 DQ 1 (Obj. 6.3)
Hallucinogens are very versatile. They are used for medical reasons and also for spiritual and recreational uses. The NIH (2016) reports that hallucinogens are used in cough suppressants, surgery anesthetic, and a general anesthetic (p. 1). It is important to use these drugs while in surgery or, at the dentist for example, because the practice is so intensive. Hallucinations are intriguing to people because they can cause visions of people, places, and things, that are not real or actually there. Spiritually, people could use hallucinogens to see their God or even to have a spiritual awakening. A lot of people say that they feel changed after participating in this drug (recreationally or spiritually). It is said that in ancient times, leaders used hallucinogens to make important decisions. In the past, ancient societies have use hallucinogens as medicine (Psychology Today, 2018, p. 1). It seems that societies in the past and the present have use hallucinogens in a similar fashion. Just in today’s society we have more information about the drug and what its effects are on our body.
National Institute of Drug Use (NIH). (2016). What are hallucinogens? Retreived from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/hallucinogens
Psychology Today. (2018). Hallucinogens. Retreived from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/conditions/hallucinogens
Week 6 DQ#2 Consider the physiological effects of the so-called “designer” drugs. What are the dangers of these drugs?
Re:Topic 6 DQ 2 (Obj. 6.1 and 6.2)
Designer drug is another informal term of psychoactive drugs (Abbott, 2015). Designer drugs are able to mimics the general effects of known or common drugs. These drugs are made by chemicals. These drugs also having same kind of effects like other normal drugs but the chemical used in these drugs are completely different than other drugs.
According to the researchers, Designer drug has some physiological effects and the effects are depending on the amount of taken drug (King, 2011)
Danger of these drugs
Physiological effects of Designer Drugs-
Blood Pressure- Taking Designer drug can change the level of blood pressure and also can increase the level of blood pressure. If a person is taking high amount of designer drugs then he or she can experience high level of blood pressure.
Withdrawal symptoms – Withdrawing these designer drugs can lead to some Withdrawal symptoms like Depression, Vomiting tendency, excessive sweating and increased blood pressure.
Heart attack of failure- Designer drugs can affect our heart and can also result dysfunction of the heart. According to the researchers, in some cases taking high level of designer drugs was the cause of heart attack.
Changes in Body weight- Taking Designer drugs can result weight loss or sometimes excessive weight gaining. These kinds of sudden change can affect our liver system and also can lead to obesity.
Psychological Illness- Psychological illness like Depression, aggression, Mood swings can be appeared as the result of taking Designer-drugs.
Visual Disabilities– Designer drugs are made in Illegal laboratories so it may contain some unknown and harmful substances which are really harmful for our eyes. So, taking high amount of Designer drugs regularly can lead to visual disabilities or hallucination.
Seizures- Seizures is the sudden electrical disturbance of the brain. Seizure can lead to changes of behaviors, feelings and mood. Seizure is the cause of taking designer drug on the regular basis.
All Symptoms comes from (Abbott, 2015) and (King, 2011).
Abbott, R. &. (2015). The new designer drug wave. Retrieved from Jolurnal of psychoactive drugs: Abbott, R., & Smith, D. E. (2015). The new designer drug wave: A clinical, toxicological, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579784
King, L. (2011). New psychoactive substances. Retrieved from Drug testing and analysis: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/dta.319
Re:Topic 6 DQ 2 (Obj. 6.1 and 6.2)
Consider the physiological effects of the so-called “designer” drugs. What are the dangers of these drugs?
Designer drugs are very dangerous drugs and are created all around the world in laboratories and the drugs are altered with other chemicals.The name designer drugs refers to wide range of compounds. Designer drugs come in many forms from tablets to being able to smoke or inject the substance. Some of the substances that are recreated to a designer drug is amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, cannabis to name a few. Designer drugs are not anything new they actually have been around since the early 1920’s however the name designer drugs didn’t come around until the 1980’s. Some of the street names for the designer drugs are known as nexus”, synergy, toonies, liquid X, vitamin K and 2C-B (GINAD, 2018). The effects of the designer drugs vary as well but are made to mimic the real thing. Some of the symptoms one might experience when using a designer drug is symptoms from euphoria to hallucinations, as well as drowsiness and/or elevated heart rate. Designer drugs can also cause serious health issues both in the short and long term usage. When talking about designer drugs one never knows what componets are in the drug as it could contain harmful substances which could have been added deliberately . Overdosing is more common with the designer drugs due to the fact that the drugs will have little or no effect so many times people overcompensate by taking dangerous amounts. Designer drugs are very addictive and the withdrawal symptoms could happen with repeated usage of the drug.
GINAD. (2018). Retrieved from http://www.ginad.org/en/drugs/drugs/277/designer-drugs
Levinthal, C. (2016). Drugs, behavior, and modern society (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.